Gravity beneficiation process for iron ore

Gravity beneficiation process for iron ore

Gravity beneficiation is a beneficiation method that utilizes the density differences, particle size, shape, and other characteristics of different minerals in the ore to achieve mineral separation under the action of gravity. For weakly magnetic iron ore, gravity beneficiation is an important pre selection or selection method.

Gravity beneficiation process flow of iron ore

1.Heavy medium beneficiation:

  • Principle:By adding heavy media (such as water, saline water, etc.) to increase the density of the slurry, minerals of different densities can be separated under the action of gravity.
  • Process flow:After coarse and fine crushing, the ore is mixed with heavy media and sorted by a heavy media beneficiation machine. The selection and density adjustment of heavy media are crucial and need to be determined based on the density characteristics of the ore.
  • Application:Suitable for pre selection of coarse-grained ores and can obtain coarser concentrate products.

Typical beneficiation plant

Sisheng beneficiation plant: In order to save transportation costs, some mines in South Africa have set up gravity separation plants in mining areas to improve the grade of coarse concentrate under coarse-grained conditions and timely dispose of a large amount of low-grade tailings.

2.Jigging beneficiation:

  • Principle:By using the sieve plates that move up and down in the jigger, minerals in the slurry are separated according to characteristics such as density and particle size during the jumping process.
  • Process flow:After crushing the ore, it enters the jigger. During the jumping process of the jig, light minerals float and heavy minerals settle, thus achieving separation.
  • Application:Suitable for pre selection of coarse-grained ores and can obtain coarser concentrate products.

Typical beneficiation plant

Hainan Mining North Three Poor Ores: The useful iron minerals in the ore are mainly hematite, specularite, magnetite, goethite, and limonite, while the vein minerals are mainly quartz, blue amphibole, calcite, etc., with a small amount of pyrite and yellow potassium iron alum.

3.Shaker beneficiation:

  • Principle:A shaker is a bed that moves back and forth on a horizontal plane, with a slope on the bed surface. During the shaking process, minerals separate along the slope based on density, particle size, and other characteristics.
  • Process flow:After crushing and fine grinding, the ore is mixed with water on a shaker for sorting. The reciprocating motion of the shaker and the flow of water work together to separate minerals.
  • Application: Suitable for the selection of fine-grained ores and can obtain high-grade concentrate products.

Typical beneficiation plant

Xunyang Mirror Iron Mine in Shaanxi Province: The deposit is a sedimentary metamorphic iron ore deposit, mainly composed of mirror iron ore and quartz, with a scale like structure of mirror iron ore.

4.Chute beneficiation:

  • Principle: A chute is an inclined groove body, in which the slurry flows along the inclined plane under the action of gravity, and minerals of different densities separate during the flow process.
  • Process flow: After crushing the ore, it enters the chute. When the slurry flows in the chute, light minerals float and heavy minerals settle, achieving separation.
  • Application:Suitable for producing coarse-grained concentrate products and can also be used as an auxiliary means for other mineral processing methods.

Typical beneficiation plant

Anhui Huoqiu Lilou Iron Mine: The ore minerals are mainly specularite and pseudohematite, while the vein minerals are mainly quartz, chlorite, sericite, dolomite, and calcite.

Technological advantages

1.Heavy medium beneficiation:

  • Efficient sorting:By adjusting the density of heavy media, minerals with different densities can be effectively sorted, improving sorting efficiency.
  • High processing capacity:Suitable for processing large amounts of ore, especially coarse-grained ore.
  • Cost saving:Compared to other beneficiation methods, heavy medium beneficiation usually has lower operating and maintenance costs.

2.Jigging beneficiation:

  • Simple structure:The structure of the jig is relatively simple, easy to construct and maintain.
  • Strong processing power:suitable for processing coarse-grained ores with high processing capacity.
  • Flexible operation:The operating parameters of the jigger can be adjusted according to the characteristics of the ore and sorting requirements.

3.Shaker beneficiation:

  • Fine sorting:The shaking table can achieve fine sorting of fine-grained ore and improve the grade of concentrate.
  • Strong adaptability:Suitable for sorting various types of ores, especially minerals with significant density differences.
  • High recovery rate:It can effectively recover useful minerals and improve resource utilization.

4. Chute beneficiation:

  • Simple structure:The chute structure is simple and does not require complex mechanical devices.
  • Low energy consumption:Due to the use of gravity separation, no additional energy input is required.
  • Easy to operate:The chute beneficiation operation is simple and easy to achieve automated control.
  • The gravity beneficiation method has the advantages of high separation efficiency, low cost, and environmental friendliness in processing weakly magnetic iron ore. These methods can be selected and optimized based on the characteristics of ore particle size, density, and shape to achieve the best beneficiation effect.